Utilizing drivers for local privilege escalation based attacks in a very common attack technique and method used by attackers and hackers alike. Kernel-mode drivers that are susceptible to various types of buffer overflow/vulnerabilities allow for an attacker to obtain a higher level of privilege, this is known as an EOP (escalation of privileges) attack, if an attacker can abuse a kernel-mode driver to write data in kernel mode, they can supply a token-stealing shellcode payload to escalate their privileges to a position like NT\AUTHORITY SYSTEM.
2. Driver communication
Almost every driver is registered on Windows with a device name and like that allows for user-mode to obtain a handler to the kernel-mode driver. Kernel32.dll includes
CreateFileA which is a function denoted by Microsofts MSDN docs as a function that allows for handler distribution from kernel-mode to allow for cross communications.
HANDLE CreateFileA( LPCSTR lpFileName, DWORD dwDesiredAccess, DWORD dwShareMode, LPSECURITY_ATTRIBUTES lpSecurityAttributes, DWORD dwCreationDisposition, DWORD dwFlagsAndAttributes, HANDLE hTemplateFile );
CreateFileA creates or opens a file or I/O device and returns a handler that can be used to access the various types of communication to kernel-mode in the sense of kernel-mode drivers. After obtaining a handler to the driver device, we can use the function
DeviceIoControl which allows a user to send an IOCTL code to a specific device driver.
BOOL DeviceIoControl( HANDLE hDevice, DWORD dwIoControlCode, LPVOID lpInBuffer, DWORD nInBufferSize, LPVOID lpOutBuffer, DWORD nOutBufferSize, LPDWORD lpBytesReturned, LPOVERLAPPED lpOverlapped );
hDevice field is filled with the device handler, which is provided by the previously used function.
dwIoControlCode function is filled with a discovered IOCTL code address (which looks likes
0x0022001c). The IOCTL is used as a request by a user-mode program to call to a kernel-mode action (a syscall).
3. Understanding IOCTL values & permissions
What is an IOCTL? IOCTLs are used to communicate to a kernel-mode driver from a user-mode application, within drivers, the author will define IOCTLs and data structures that can be used for communication. IOCTLs are a 32bit number. IOCTLs are including in IRP requests (I/O request packet), instead of communicating individual bits of data to a kernel-mode driver, various data is encapsulated in an IRP request. (IOCTLs are included in that)
Bits 0-1 are defined as TransferType. This definition is used to work as the method of communication when transferring data to a kernel-mode driver. Indicating how the system will pass data to the caller of
METHOD_OUT_DIRECT, METHOD_IN_DIRECT, METHOD_BUFFERED or METHOD_NEITHER.
These I/O control codes are contained in IRP_MJ_DEVICE_CONTROL and IRP_MJ_INTERNAL_DEVICE_CONTROL requests. The I/O manager creates these requests as a result of calls to DeviceIoControl
Bits 2-12 are defined as FunctionCode, this definition is used to determine the user-defined vs. system-defined IOCTLs.
Bit 13 is defined as a Custom and like bit 31 it’s defined for representing user-defined values.
Bits 14-15 are defined as RequiredAcess bits, the various types of access a IOCTL can provide is:
|` FILE_ANY_ACCESS , FILE_READ_ACCESS, FILE_WRITE_ACCESS , FILE_READ_ACCESS||FILE_WRITE_ACCESS`|
This is how the I/O manager can reject IOCTL requests if they are not opened with the correct amount of access.
Bits 16-30 are defined as DeviceType bits, and this is representing the device type that the IOCTLs are written for. And the last bit, bit 31 represents user-defined values. A full list of device types can be found at https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows-hardware/drivers/kernel/specifying-device-types
For defining IOCTLs, there is a system-supplied macro
CTL_CODE which is defined in Wdm.h and Ntddk.h
#define IOCTL_Device_Function CTL_CODE(DeviceType, Function, Method, Access)
For example, within the HEVD vulnerable driver, there is the CTL_CODE IOCTL macro defined as:
#define HACKSYS_EVD_IOCTL_ARBITRARY_OVERWRITE CTL_CODE(FILE_DEVICE_UNKNOWN, 0x802, METHOD_NEITHER, FILE_ANY_ACCESS)
for the Write What Where vulnerabilities IOCTL. This can be be used to calculate the IOCTL via Python command line magic.
4. IOCTL discovery
System IRP/System monitoring
Capturing IRP packets and requests which include IOCTLs is possible through system monitoring. Various tools can be utilized to do this.
IrpTracker is a tool which allows sniffing Ring3 and Ring0 traffic for communications between user-mode and kernel-mode drivers. This can be used to track IRP requests and IOCTLs which have been used to communicate with a driver.
IOCTLbf is a tool designed for basic kernel driver fuzzing via a provided IOCTL, but once you have a valid IOCTL, you can use IOCTLbf to fuzz for more.
kDriver-Fuzzer is based on IOCTLbf, and it allows for more kernel driver fuzzing and IOCTL bruteforcing/discovery.
Static code analysis with IDA Pro
We can fully automated IOCTL discovery with the win_driver_plugin from FSecureLABS and the help of Sam Bowne. This plugin automates the discovery of the
DispatchDeviceControl function / dispatch functions which we can use to obtain many IOCTLs from the driver.
For example with HEVD and win_driver_plugin:
5. IOCTL decoder/calculator
OSR Online IOCTL Decoder is built-in JS and is an online IOCTL decoder that allows you to easily find all of the details about the various IOCTL values as discussed earlier.